Jun 12 2019

Reading in the Hospital

porticos in Bologna, Italia

C. S. Lewis (1898–1963) once confessed what his ideal reading situation would be:

Johnson once described the ideal happiness which he would choose if he were regardless of futurity. My own choice, with the same reservation, would be to read the Italian epic—to be always convalescent from some small illness and always seated in a window that overlooked the sea, there to read these poems eight hours of each happy day. (The Allegory of Love, (Oxford UP, 1936; Second Edition, 1946) 304)

Lewis is referring (I think) to Samuel Johnson’s (1709-1784) choice of Shakespeare:

Having fallen into a very serious frame of mind, in which mutual expressions of kindness passed between us, such as would be thought too vain in me to repeat, I talked with regret of the sad inevitable certainty that one of us must survive the other.

JOHNSON. ‘Yes, Sir, that is an affecting consideration. I remember Swift, in one of his letters to Pope, says, “I intend to come over, that we may meet once more; and when we must part, it is what happens to all human beings.”’

BOSWELL. ‘The hope that we shall see our departed friends again must support the mind.’

JOHNSON. ‘Why, yes, Sir.’ Boswell. ‘There is a strange unwillingness to part with life, independent of serious fears as to futurity. A reverend friend of ours [Dr. Percy] tells me, that he feels an uneasiness at the thoughts of leaving his house, his study, his books.’

JOHNSON. ‘This is foolish in [Percy]. A man need not be uneasy on these grounds: for, as he will retain his consciousness, he may say with the philosopher, Omnia mea mecum porto. [‘All that is mine, I carry with me,’ Cicero, Paradoxa, i]’

BOSWELL. ‘True, Sir: we may carry our books in our heads; but still there is something painful in the thought of leaving for ever what has given us pleasure. I remember, many years ago, when my imagination was warm, and I happened to be in a melancholy mood, it distressed me to think of going into a state of being in which Shakepeare’s poetry did not exist. A lady, whom I then much admired, a very amiable woman, humoured my fancy, and relieved me by saying, “The first thing you will meet with in the other world will be an elegant copy of Shakspeare’s works, presented to you.”’

Dr. Johnson smiled benignantly at this, and did not appear to disapprove of the notion…. (Boswell, Life of Johnson, ÆTAT 69, April 1778)

But compare Lewis’s preferred hospital to those in Thomas More’s (1478–1535) Utopia (c. 1516), where:

hospital patients get first priority—oh yes, there are four hospitals in the suburbs, just outside the walls. Each of them is about the size of a small town. The idea of this is to prevent overcrowding, and facilitate the isolation of infectious cases. These hospitals are so well run, and so well supplied with all types of medical equipment, the nurses are so sympathetic and conscientious, and there are so many experienced doctors constantly available, that, though nobody’s forced to go there, practically everyone would rather be ill in hospital than at home. (Utopia (c. 1516, 1551), trans. Paul Turner, (New York: Penguin, 1965) II, 61–62)

To be a patient in Utopia is to be a king: everyone attends to you. Compare Mayra Hornbacher: “Hospital policy is to impose the least level of restriction possible,” (Madness: a Bipolar Life, (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2008) 5).


Jun 5 2019

Walking with Thoreau

In his essay “Walking,” Thoreau writes:

You must walk like a camel which is said to be the only beast which ruminates when walking. When a traveller asked Wordsworth’s servant to show him her master’s study, she answered “Here is his library, but his study is out of doors.”

I’ve been in a Thoreau-esque mood lately. I’ve been gardening, photographing, paying closer attention to the nature around me, trying to figure out how this relates to my writing, wondering how it might make me a better writer.

Some highlights:

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Different day, different lizard

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An anole
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Wildflowers at the farm #wildflowers

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Green Lizzy #lizard

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May 8 2019

Pruning the Paragraphs

Pruning the Paragraphs

Here is a paragraph I had to prune from an essay I’m finishing up but that I think still has some worthwhile comparisons:

One also wonders whether some reactions spawned by Jussie Smollett’s alleged attack, qualify for “religiofication,” which is what American philosopher and longshoreman Eric Hoffer once defined as “the art of turning practical purposes into holy causes.”* If Smollett staged such an attack, he would be not unlike the innkeeper at the beginning of the Quixote (I, iii). For the innkeeper is someone who, being something of a knight in his younger days, is willing to placate his meddlesome guest Alonso Quijano. Quijano went mad by reading too many books of chivalry, and now wishes to be ordained into knighthood under the name Don Quixote. The innkeeper believes that by pretending (or acting) to be a knight, and going through the motions of ordination, he will send this madman on his way, and away from the inn where he causes mischief. In doing so, the innkeeper almost plays Don Quixote’s game-of-pretend better than the Don himself, for the innkeeper has inverted Hoffer’s formula and turned the Don’s holy cause into a practical purpose.

*Eric Hoffer, The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (1951), (New York: Harper & Row, 1966) § 1, p. 15.

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Cedar waxwings eating nandina

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Mar 27 2019

Thucydides and Our Refusal to Debate Neighbors-as-Enemies

Piazza Navona, Roma, Italia

Thucydides and Our Refusal to Debate Neighbors-as-Enemies

Today I’m reading some things I haven’t quite got around to:

And in reading those things above, it reminded me of a passage toward the end of the manuscript to Thucydides‘ (460-400 BC) unfinished History, where he observes:

The Assembly and the Council of the Bean* still met notwithstanding, although they discussed nothing that was not approved of by the conspirators, who both supplied the speakers, and reviewed in advance what they were to say.

Fear, and the sight of the numbers of the conspirators, closed the mouths of the rest; or if any ventured to rise in opposition, he was presently put to death in some convenient way, and there was neither search for the murderers nor justice to be had against them if suspected; but the people remained motionless, being so thoroughly cowed that men thought themselves lucky to escape violence, even when they held their tongues.

An exaggerated belief in the numbers of the conspirators also demoralised the people, rendered helpless by the magnitude of the city, and by their want of intelligence with each other, and being without means of finding out what those numbers really were.

For the same reason it was impossible for any one to open his grief to a neighbour and to concert measures to defend himself, as he would have had to speak either to one whom he did not know, or whom he knew but did not trust.

Indeed all the popular party approached each other with suspicion, each thinking his neighbour concerned in what was going on, the conspirators having in their ranks persons whom no one could ever have believed capable of joining an oligarchy; and these it was who made the many so suspicious, and so helped to procure impunity for the few, by confirming the commons in their mistrust of one another.

Peloponnesian War, trans. Richard Crawley, Everyman Library (New York: J. M. Dent, 1910) (8.66).

*The Council of the Bean was so-called because voted were indicated and tallied by a jar of differently colored beans.


Mar 1 2019

What The Hell Does “Culture” Mean, Anyway?

What the Hell Does “Culture” Mean, Anyway?

Let’s ask Leo Strauss (1899-1973):

Nietzsche has a deeper reverence than any other beholder for the sacred tables of the Hebrews as well as of the other nations in question. Yet since he is only a beholder of these tables, since what one table commends or commands is incompatible with what the others command, he is not subject to the commandments of any. This is true also and especially of the tables, or “values” of modern Western culture. But according to him, all scientific concepts, and hence in particular the concept of culture, are culture-bound; the concept of cultures is an outgrowth of 19th century Western culture; its application to “cultures” of other ages and climates is an act stemming from the spiritual imperialism of that particular culture. There is then a glaring contradiction between the claimed objectivity of the science of cultures and the radical subjectivity of that science. Differently stated, one cannot behold, i.e., truly understand, any culture unless one is firmly rooted in one’s own culture or unless one belongs in one’s capacity as a beholder to some culture. But if the universality of the beholding of all cultures is to be preserved, the culture to which the beholder of all cultures belongs, must be the universal culture, the culture of mankind, the world culture; the universality of beholding presupposes, if only by anticipating it, the universal culture which is no longer one culture among many. The variety of cultures that have hitherto emerged contradicts the oneness of truth. Truth is not a woman so that each man can have his own truth as he can have his own wife. Nietzsche sought therefore for a culture that would no longer be particular and hence in the last analysis arbitrary. The single goal of mankind is conceived by him as in a sense super-human: he speaks of the super-man of the future. The super-man is meant to unite in himself Jerusalem and Athens on the highest level.(“Jerusalem and Athens: Some Preliminary Reflections,” Studies in Platonic Political Philosophy, (University of Chicago Press, 1983) 148–49.)


Democracy is then not indeed mass rule but mass culture …. An illiterate society at its best is a society ruled by age-old ancestral custom which it traces to original founders, gods or sons of gods or pupils of gods; since there are no letters in such a society, the late heirs cannot be in direct contact with the original founders…. Hence an illiterate society cannot consistently act on its principle that the best is the oldest…. (Strauss “What is Liberal Education?” Address Delivered at the Tenth Annual Graduation Exercises of the Basic Program of Liberal Education for Adults. June 6, 1959)


Feb 12 2019

What I Don’t Know

Palazzo Re Enzo, Bologna, Italia

What I Don’t Know

From Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011), a book that took me thirteenth months to complete:

The notion that we have limited access to the workings of our minds is difficult to accept because, naturally it is alien to our experience, but it is true: you know far less about yourself than you feel you do…. [1]

the confidence that people have in their intuitions is not a reliable guide to their validity. In other words, do not trust anyone—including yourself—to tell you how much you should trust their judgment….[2]

Nothing in life is as important as you think it is when you are thinking about it.[3]



[1] Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2011) 52.

[2] Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow 239–40.

[3] Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow 402.

Feb 7 2019

On Writing: How to Avoid Materials

Western book stack

Currently I’m working on the first of a series of essays that deal with the idea of tolerating the intolerant. For the first one, I’ll be using some old family stories. I’ve also picked out some recent headlines and current events for it. I plan to weave them in and make it all freshly relevant. Some literary comparisons from Camus and Cervantes will also be used.

And even though Kafka’s The Metamorphosis (Die Verwandlung) (1915) can be read in ways quite relevant to the topic of tolerating the intolerant, I don’t want to use it for this project, and I have refrained from rereading it.

Yes, Kafka’s story is in most English language short story anthologies. It’s often the first story by Kafka that students in the United States are exposed to. Yes, as the story progresses Gregor Samsa’s family grows less and less tolerant as their son changes into an insect. They grow so intolerant that, by the end, they celebrate Gregor’s demise by having a picnic. Yes, Kafka had a tremendous influence on Camus,[1] and Kafka took Cervantes very seriously, yes, yes, yes….

So Kafka’s tale might seem relevant to use.

But I don’t want to. In this particular story–or at least my multiple memories of reading it–Kafka exhausts me in a way Camus and Cervantes do not.

Maybe it’s that drab Prague apartment … and that dry humor … dry like the crust and crunch of salt crystals. Abrasive….

Restoration versus reservation: Perhaps if one leaves Kafka’s story in mental reserve for a while, its relevance will one day be restored and written about.  Or perhaps the tale is musty–like an old rug that’s been in the family for generations. Perhaps Kafka’s story needs to be taken to the yard and beaten with a broomstick until it is properly aired out.

Yet I don’t feel like the one to do the butler’s duties.


[1] Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus) (1942), trans. Justin O’Brien, (New York: Vintage Books, 1959) pp. 127, 130, 138; LÉtranger (The Stranger) (1942), trans. Stuart Gilbert, (New York: Vintage, 1954) pp. 11, 21, 99–100.

Jan 18 2019

A Shout-Out to all the Creative People in My Life

book spines

A Shout-Out to all the Creative People in My Life

I’m still recovering/glowing/musing/recollecting from a trip to Europe, where I had Germany for a main course and London for dessert.

It was great to undergo a pilgrimage toward creativity, to Goethe’s house and Schiller’s house in Weimar, Bach’s churches in Leipzig, as well as Samuel Johnson’s and Charles Dickens’s houses in London.

(Charles Dickens’s desk – London)

Let 2019 be a creative year for me and all the creative folk in my life:

(Berlin Cathedral/ Berliner Dom)

(Goethe’s house, Weimar)

Dec 21 2018

The Gospel of Honor (or “Honour”)


The Gospel of Honor (or “Honour”)

I’m very glad to have my essay/review of Tamlar Sommers’s Why Honor Matters (2018) published in the Fortnightly Review.

It explores what Aristotle, Boethius, Machiavelli, and others, such as Martha Nussbaum have to say about the concept of honor.

But beware, it’s a long read (4100 words):

Dec 19 2018

Things I’ve been Reading the Past Decade to Prepare for a Trip to Germany (Part II)

la casa

Things I’ve been Reading the Past Decade
 to Prepare Writing a Novel about for a Trip to Germany (Part I)

Read Part I here.

Martin Buber, Erzählungen der Chassidim (Tales of the Hasidim) (1948)

Solomon Maimon, Autobiography (1800)

Johann Herder, God, Some Conversations (1787)

Isaiah Berlin, Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas (1978)

Correspondence between Schiller and Goethe from 1794 to 1805

Friedrich Schiller, Letters Upon the Aesthetic Education of Man (1794)

–––––. “On Simple and Sentimental Poetry,” (1795)

–––––. William Tell (1804)

Charles E. Passage, Friedrich Schiller: World Dramatists (1975)

Johann Goethe, Goethe’s Letters to Zelter

–––––. Götz von Berlichingen (1773)

–––––. Die Leiden des jungen Werthers (The Sorrows of Young Werther) (1774)

–––––. Iphigenieauf Tauris (Iphigenia in Tauris) (1779)

­­­–––––. Italienische Reise (Italian Journey) (1816–17)

–––––. Aus Meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (Poetry and Truth from My Own Life) (1811–1830)

–––––. Novella (1828)

–––––. Zur Farbenlehre (Theory of Colors), “Preface to the First Edition of 1810.”

–––––. Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship) (1795)

–––––. Faust Part I (1808)

–––––. Faust Part II (1832)

Rudolf Steiner, Goethe’s Weltanschauung (1897)

–––––. Grundlinien einer Erkenntnistheorie der Goetheschen Weltanschauung (A Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe’s World Conception) (1886)

–––––. Nietzsche, ein Kämpfer gegen seine Zeit (Friedrich Nietzsche: Fighter for Freedom) (1895)

–––––. Education as a Social Problem (1919)

–––––. The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity (1922)

–––––. Mysticism and Modern Thought (1928)

George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, “Preface to Phenomenology” (1807)

Arthur Schopenhauer, Essays and Aphorisms [taken from Parerga and Paralipomena] (1851)

Nietzsche, Writings from the Early Notebooks, (1870-1873)

––––-. The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit ofMusic (1872) (1886)

–––––. On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense (1873)

–––––. Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen (Untimely Meditations) (1873–1876)

­­­–––––. Toward a Genealogy of Morality (1886)

Walter Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher,Psychologist, Antichrist (1950)

–––––. Discovering the Mind Vol. IINietzsche, Heidegger, Buber (1981)


Ferdinand Tönnies, Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (Community and Society) (1887)

Wilhelm Dilthey, Selected Works Vol. III: The Formation of the Historical World in the Human Sciences [~1865-1911] (2002)

Max Weber, Essays in Sociology [~1900-1920] (1946)

Jürgen Habermas, Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit (The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere) (1961)

Benedetto Croce, Historical Materialism and the Economics of Karl Marx (1900)

E. M. Butler, The Tyranny of Greece Over Germany (1935)

Oscar Jászi, The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy (1929)

Vladimir Lenin, The State and Revolution (1917)

Antonio Gramsci, Quaderni del carcere (Selections from the Prison Notebooks) (1929–1935)


Victor Lefebure, The Riddle of the Rhine: Chemical Strategy in Peace and War (1923)

Ranier Maria Rilke, Letters to a Young Poet (1902–1908)

Rudolf Otto, The Idea of the Holy (1917)

Heinrich Mann, Im Schlaraffenland (Berlin: in the Land of Cockaigne) (1900)

Heinrich Mann, Der Untertan (Man of Straw) (1918)

Thomas Mann, Buddenbrooks (1901)

–––––. “Germany and the Germans” (1945)

Nigel Hamilton, The Brothers Mann (1979)

Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (1923)

Martin Buber & Franz Rosenzweig, Die Schrift und das Wort (Scripture and Translation) (1926)

Hermann Hesse, Steppenwolf (1927)

Arnold Zweig, Der Streit um den Sergeanten Grischa (The Case of Sergeant Grischa) (1927)

Erich Maria Remarque, Im Westen Nichts Neues (All Quiet on the Western Front) (1929)

Jaroslav Hasek, Osudy dobrého vojáka Švejka zasvětové války (The Good Soldier: Schweik) (1930)

Karl Kraus, Half-truths & One-and-a-half truths: selected aphorisms [~1900-1936] (1976)

Sigmund Freud, Wit and Its Relation to the Unconscious (1900)

Carl Jung, The Jung Reader [1918-1930] (2012)

Walter Benjamin, Illuminations (1940)

Moritz Julius Bonn, The Wandering Scholar (1940)

Stefan Zweig, The Royal Game and Other Stories (1941)

H.G. Atkins, German Literature Through Nazi Eyes (1941)

Ernie Pyle, This is Your War: The Story of G. I. Joe (1943)

Martin Foss, The Idea of Perfection in the Western World (1946)

Karl Jaspers, The Way to WisdomAn Introduction to Philosophy (1951)

Elie Wiesel, Night (1960)

Hannah Arendt, The Life of the Mind (1971)

Walter Laqueur, Weimar: a Cultural History, 1918–1933 (1974)

–––––. The Terrible SecretAn Investigation into the Suppression of Information about Hitlers Final Solution’ (1980)

–––––. Best of Times, Worst of Times: Memoirs of a Political Education (2009)

Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers (1974)

Günter Grass, Im Krebsgang (Crabwalk) (2002)

Fritz Stern, Five Germanys I Have Known (2006)

George Steiner, The Death of Tragedy (1961)

–––––. After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation (1975) 

–––––. The Portage to San Cristóbal of A. H. (1981)